Create a Custom AMI in AWS
The AMIs provided by AWS contain little more than just the operating system. So to run a PHP web application, for example, you would need to install Apache and PHP. This can be done automatically using User Data, or with an automation tool like Chef or Puppet. Doing it that way extends the wait time to instance "readiness." Many applications, such as those in an autoscaling environnemt, need instances ready to use immediately. By creating custom AMIs we can lauch pre-configured instances and skip the wait. Note: For Windows PuTTY ssh connections to EC2 instances, see: https://linuxacademy.com/blog/linux/connect-to-amazon-ec2-using-putty-private-key-on-windows/ or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bi7ow5NGC-U For information on using the Cloud Playground, see: https://support.linuxacademy.com/hc/en-us/articles/360019096651-Cloud-Playground-FAQ#how_connect ** Please reference the updated commands provided in the Objectives section.
Create a Custom AMI in AWS
AWS AMIs contain little more than just an operating system. So to run a PHP web application, for example, you would need to install Apache and PHP. This can be done automatically using user data, or with an automation tool like Chef or Puppet. However, doing it this way extends the wait time for the instance to be ready.
Many applications, such as those in an autoscaling environment, need instances ready to use immediately. By creating custom AMIs, we can launch pre-configured instances and skip the wait.
In this lab, we're going to create a custom AMI with Apache and PHP already installed. Then, we'll use that AMI to create a new instance that already has that configuration.
To do this, we'll:
- Launch an instance from a standard AWS Linux AMI.
- Connect to the instance via SSH and manually configure Apache and PHP.
- Create a custom AMI.
- Create a new instance from the custom AMI and verify that Apache and PHP are installed correctly on it.
Create the Custom AMI
To get started, log in to the live environment as
cloud_user with the password provided. Make sure you are using
us-east-1 as your region throughout the lab.
Under AWS services at the top, type "EC2". You can also find it by opening the Services menu and clicking EC2 under the Compute header.
Click Launch Instance and then select the Amazon Linux 2 AMI.
Next, select General purpose t2.micro from the list of instance types, and click Next: Configure Instance Details.
We'll leave it in the default VPC for now. Make sure Auto-assign Public IP is enabled, and click Next: Add Storage.
We can also leave the default settings here — the Size (GiB) should be 8GB and the Volume Type should be General Purpose SSD (gp2). Click Next: Add Tags.
Now, click Add Tag and add a Key called "Name" and a Value called "web-config". Click Next: Configure Security Group.
On the Configure Security Group page, we can leave the default setting under Assign a security group (it should be Create a new security group). Under Security group name, type "Web Security Group". For the Description, type "All SSH and HTTP".
There is already an SSH rule in place. Under Source, click the Custom dropdown and set it to My IP to restrict it to just our IP address. Then, we need to add an HTTP rule so we can access Apache. Click Add Rule and select HTTP. This will allow port 80 from anywhere, which is fine. Click Review and Launch.
Everything should look good, so click Launch.
The final step is to create a key pair, so we can access the instance via SSH using a key pair. In the Select an existing key pair or create a new key pair pop-up, click the default Choose an existing key pair to open the dropdown, and select Create a new key pair. In Key pair name, enter "WebConfig" and click Download Key Pair. Make sure you check where it's saved (most likely to your Downloads folder) because we'll need it soon. Click Launch Instances.
On the Launch Status page, click View Instances.
Here, we'll see the status is pending. It may take a few minutes before it changes to running — after a few minutes, if it still says pending, you can click the refresh icon in the Launch Instance toolbar to see if it's done.
Once it changes to running, click the Description tab below the instance's public IP address and public DNS name.
Next, launch Terminal. (Note: If you are using Windows, you will need an SSH client such as PuTTY.)
First, we need to lock down the permissions on the SSH key, so enter:
$ chmod 400 Downloads/WebConfig.pem
Now we're ready to log in to the operating system by entering:
$ ssh -i Downloads/WebConfig.pem ec2-user@IP_ADDRESS
Make sure to replace
IP_ADDRESS with your EC2 instance's public IP address. Copy it the old-fashioned way, or click the copy icon that appears when you hover over the IP address.
A prompt may ask, "Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?" Type
We should now be connected to the
webconfig instance. Now, let's do our configuration.
First, let's make sure all of our packages are up to date.
$ sudo yum update -y
Next, enter the following bash script to install Apache and PHP:
$ sudo yum install -y httpd php
Now, let's start the Apache service.
$ sudo service httpd start
Set it to start up automatically at boot.
$ sudo chkconfig httpd on
Now, let's check that our Apache web page will come up if we put our public IP in our browser. Open a new tab and paste in your EC2 instance's public IP address. This should open up a Test Page.
Back in Terminal, let's set up a PHP page. For this, we're going to create a PHP page in
/var/www/html, and we're going to give our user the correct permissions.
Let's take the
ec2-user and add it to the Apache group. Enter:
$ sudo usermod -a -G apache ec2-user
We'll also change the ownership of the
$ sudo chown -R ec2-user:apache /var/www
Now we should have permissions to create a PHP page in
var/www/html. For that, enter:
$ echo "<?php phpinfo(); ?>" > /var/www/html/phpinfo.php
Now let's see if PHP is configured correctly. In the Test Page window of the browser, add
/phpinfo.php after your instance's IP address and press Enter. Our PHP page should come up, verifying that our instance is properly configured.
Next, let's create our custom AMI. Head back to your instance dashboard in AWS, and select your instance. Select Actions at the top, hover over Image, and click Create Image. For Image name, enter "WebPHP7". For Image description, enter "Web server with Apache and PHP7". Leave the rest of the default settings, click Create Image, and then close out of the Create Image success message pop-up.
In the sidebar under Images, click AMIs to watch our image's creation progress. We'll notice its status is pending. A snapshot is being made of the boot volume, and that will take a few minutes.
Once the snapshot finishes, it will be registered as an AMI — a custom AMI private to us. We can then use that to launch more instances. However, note that when we create a custom AMI, it's only usable in the region we created it in. If we needed to use it in a different region, we would have to copy it. We could do that by clicking Actions, selecting Copy AMI, and then setting a different Destination region.
Once our AMI's status changes to available, we can launch our instance using our new custom AMI, so we won't have to do any configuration to it. We could launch it here, but let's go to the EC2 service so we can see it in the custom AMIs tab. Click Instances in the sidebar, and then click Launch Instance.
On the Choose an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) page, click the My AMIs tab in the sidebar. We should see our WebPHP7 AMI listed. Instead of choosing an AMI from the Quick Start tab like we did earlier, select our custom AMI. Then we'll go through the same steps as before.
Select General purpose t2.micro from the list of instance types, and click Next: Configure Instance Details.
Leave it in the default VPC, make sure Auto-assign Public IP is enabled, and click Next: Add Storage.
Leave the default settings here, and click Next: Add Tags.
Now click Add Tag and add a Key called "Name" and a Value called "web-php". Click Next: Configure Security Group.
For the security group, click Select an existing security group and select the security group we created for the previous instance (the one named Web Security Group). Click Review and Launch.
In the Select an existing key pair or create a new key pair pop-up, leave the default Choose an existing key pair setting. Under Select a key pair, select our previously created "WebConfig" key pair. Check the acknowledgement checkbox to indicate that we do have access to the selected private key file, and then click Launch Instances.
On the Launch Status page, click View Instances.
web-php instance gets to the running state, we'll make sure everything is properly installed. Select web-php, click the Description tab below, and copy its IP address. Paste it into a new browser tab, add
/phpinfo.php after it, and press Enter. The page should pop up to show everything is working.
Congratulations on completing this lab!
To recap, we launched an EC2 instance from a standard AMI containing only an operating system, accessed the instance via SSH, configured it with Apache and PHP7, created our own custom AMI from that instance, launched an instance from our custom AMI, and verified that our instance was properly configured.