Network Routing Fundamentals
April 18th, 2019
Linux Training Architect II in Content
Welcome to the Network Routing Fundamentals course! Network routing is the process of enabling computers to transfer data over networks, including the internet. This is an introductory course that is designed to give you a solid foundation in the basics of network routing. We will begin by discussing IP addressing, which provides logical addresses for data to be sent to. Once we have a good understanding of IP addresses and the various network types, we will cover the different types of network routing, the protocols that govern routing decisions, and the policies that are used in more advanced network routing. By the end of this course, you will have a solid understanding of how network routing works and how networking decisions are made.
Interactive Diagram: https://interactive.linuxacademy.com/diagrams/NetworkRoutingFundamentals.html
About the Author
Learn a little bit about the training architect for this course, Matthew Pearson.
Welcome to the Network Routing Fundamentals course! In this video, I will give a general overview of the material we'll cover in this course and talk about some of the tools available to help you along the way.
IPv4 and IPv6 — Part 1
The Internet Protocol is the main communication protocol for transferring data over the internet. This protocol provides logical addressing for network devices. In this lesson, we will discuss the differences in format and structure between IPv4 and IPv6.
IPv4 and IPv6 — Part 2
In this video, we will continue our discussion of IPv4 and IPv6. Specifically, we will discuss the functions and features of reserved IP addresses as well as the format of IPv4 and IPv6 headers.
IP Addresses and Binary
Computer systems see information in terms of binary digits. These binary digits may be combined into larger groups (called bytes) in order to express more complex data such as IP addresses. In this lesson, we will discuss binary arithmetic and how computers process IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
Network Addressing Architectures
Traditionally, IPv4 addresses were grouped into classes in a process known as classful routing. In order to better utilize the range of IPv4 addresses, classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) was implemented. In this lesson, we will discuss these two network addressing architectures and highlight the benefits of classless architecture.
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) allows logical IP addresses to be mapped to physical MAC addresses so that host machines can communicate. In this lesson, we will learn how this protocol is used to facilitate communication on a network.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Network Address Translation (NAT) is the process of mapping a private IP address to a public IP address that can be routed to on the internet. In addition to providing a consistent routing scheme for private networks, NAT also helps delay the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses.
Global Networks and Routing
In this lesson, we will discuss the various network types, from small Local Area Networks (LANs) to large Wide Area Networks (WANs) such as the internet. Because the internet encompasses such a large geographic network, many groups and organizations have been implemented to ensure that communication is efficient.
The OSI and TCP/IP Models
The OSI and TCP/IP models are conceptual models that establish standards and guidelines to ensure that computer systems around the world can communicate efficiently. In this lesson, we will discuss the similarities and differences between these two models and show how they have helped establish the communication standards for the modern internet.
There are three main types of network transmissions: unicast, broadcast, and multicast. In this lesson, we will talk about the benefits and utility of each of these transmission types.
Dynamic vs. Static Routing
Static routing is when routes are manually configured by a user or administrator. Dynamic routing uses protocols to discover routes on a network and choose the best route for network traffic. In this lesson, we will learn about both of these methods and compare the benefits of each.
Routing tables contain entries that the host or network device uses to make routing decisions. The Linux kernel supports the use of multiple routing tables, which allows routes to be put into logical groupings. In this lesson, we will learn about the reserved routing tables on a Linux host and the entries these tables contain.
Routing protocols are used to automatically discover available routes on a network and determine the best routes for network traffic to take. In this lesson, we will discuss the functions of interior and exterior gateway protocols and the metrics that are used to make routing decisions.
In this lesson, we will discuss the criteria that are used to ensure that network traffic is efficiently delivered to its intended destination. Routing protocols use different metrics to route traffic, but network routers use a standard set of principles for making these decisions.
Routing Commands and Tools
There are several command line tools for managing host networks and routing. In this lesson, we will cover a few commands that are used to manage routing on a Linux host as well as commands that are helpful for troubleshooting routing issues.
The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is an error-reporting protocol that is used to send control messages whenever there is an issue with packet delivery. In this lesson, we will learn about the different types of ICMP messages and their uses.
IP Forwarding on a Linux Host
Network devices called routers are specifically designed to route or forward IP packets, but a Linux host can also be configured to perform this function. In this lesson, we will learn how to configure a Linux host to route IP packets between two private networks.
Policy-Based Routing Overview
Network devices use policy-based routing to make routing decisions based on more than just the destination address. In this lesson, we will discuss some of the features and benefits of policy-based routing as well as some of the criteria that are used to make routing decisions.
Implementing Policy-Based Routing
In this lesson, we will learn about configuring policy-based routing on a Cisco router using access control lists (ACLs) and route maps.
The Linux Routing Policy Database (RPDB)
The Linux Routing Policy Database (RPDB) allows for more granular control over routing decisions on a Linux host. In this lesson, we will learn how the RPDB prioritizes rules and how to add new rules to the database.
Conclusion and Review
In this video, we will review the material we've covered so far and wrap up the course.
Congratulations, you've completed the Network Routing Fundamentals course! At this point, you may be wondering what to do next. In this video, I will recommend some good courses to take next and offer some suggestions for your next area of study.